Lead climbing passes through different grade routes on a high wall (usually 10-15 m). Climbers use a rope attached to their equipment (seat) and safety points on the wall for safe climbing.
Rope climbing walls usually vary between 10 and 18 meters, as is the highest wall in Bulgaria – Walltopia Climbing Center.
The walls in Climb Academy are 5 m. high. Absolutely sufficient for the full training of the young climbers. Each route is different. The shape and arrangement of the holds and steps are different. Climbing the whole route improves flexibility, balance, strength endurance, and technic. There are two types of climbing according to the way the rope is attached to the securing points on the wall. – lower insurance (lead) and upper insurance (top rope).
In Lead Climbing, the climber hooks the rope by himself in successive safety points, located about 1.5 m from each other. If the climber falls he hangs on the last point he hooked. This type of climbing requires prior training and skills for proper rope handling and securing points.
Top Rope climbing
"Top Rope" is a climbing discipline where the rope is attached to two safety points at the top of the route. If the climber falls he will hang like a swing on the rope that comes from the highest point of the wall. Top Rope climbing requires minimal or no previous experience if the climber is accompanied by an experienced instructor who is responsible for his properly belaying.
Bouldering is the passage of highly technical low routes (up to 4.5 m), which do not use a rope, and for protection is a special flooring designed to absorb kinetic energy when falling. Each route is unique and different from the others, and each movement is a challenge for the physique and balance of the climbers.
There are often dynamic and acrobatic movements that are not obvious at first glance. That's why the term "boulder problem" has become popular in sports jargon, as crossing the route is often similar to solving a task with the human body and grips on the wall, similar to Twister's game in the vertical direction.
In Speed Climbing, climbers always compete on the same standardized route. The shape and position of the grips is identical, as well as the height - 15 m, and the slope of the wall - 5 degrees. The goal is to cross the route as fast as possible, similar to a vertical sprint, as the time is measured in milliseconds using a sensor on the ground at the start and a button at the end of the route that the climber must press. During the competition, two identical routes are arranged next to each other and the climbers compete on the principle of direct eliminations, which makes the discipline attractive to watch and easy to understand by the general public.
The world record for climbing the route for men is 5,208 seconds, set by Indonesian Vedrik Leonardo on May 28, 2021, and for women - 6.84 seconds. for Alexandra Miroslav (Poland), placed at the Tokyo 2021 Olympic Games.